﻿WEBVTT 1 00:00:00.000 --> 00:00:05.066 2 00:00:05.066 --> 00:00:08.699 And you know some people have already experienced tremendous snowfalls, 3 00:00:08.700 --> 00:00:12.366 like Buffalo, New York had five to six feet at the beginning of November. 4 00:00:12.366 --> 00:00:20.832 In the last 10 years scientists have really shown that we are able to look at snowfall, at falling snow and snow pack, in ways we haven't 5 00:00:20.833 --> 00:00:28.266 been able to do before. In fact the project scientist, the lead of GPM, Dr. Gail Skofronick Jackson said that we are where 6 00:00:28.266 --> 00:00:32.599 we were measuring rain like this forty years ago, but only just starting with snowfall. 7 00:00:32.600 --> 00:00:39.366 So snow is an important primary resource of fresh water in mountain regions. 8 00:00:39.366 --> 00:00:46.999 For example the snowpack in the Sierra Nevadas accounts for one-third of the water supply for all of California. 9 00:00:47.000 --> 00:00:54.366 As the snow melt enters the water cycle, it provides both drinking water and sources for irrigation. 10 00:00:54.366 --> 00:01:01.732 Now with droughts and with climate change, that snowpack is actually starting to shrink and so water resource managers are very concerned 11 00:01:01.733 --> 00:01:09.666 about trying to find exactly where and when we're going to have these fresh water surges or fresh water deficits. 12 00:01:09.666 --> 00:01:19.099 Now snowflakes themselves come in a wide variety of different shapes and sizes. And with GPM, as I said before, the ability to look three 13 00:01:19.100 --> 00:01:24.633 dimensionally through the clouds allows us to look at individual snowflakes through time. 14 00:01:24.633 --> 00:01:33.733 So one way is to basically get all of the information scattered back from the particles, from snowfall, to really understand 15 00:01:33.733 --> 00:01:37.833 where we're having light rain, where we're having heavy rain. So what you're seeing here is all the 16 00:01:37.833 --> 00:01:43.166 different channels GPM can sense types of snow at, from light rain to heavy rain and ice. 17 00:01:43.166 --> 00:01:51.966 And the reason that's important is because knowing if something is light rain or if it's snow or if it's ice within the particles 18 00:01:51.966 --> 00:01:58.066 tells us a lot about the atmospheric circulation and storms in general 19 00:01:58.066 --> 00:02:07.666 and helps us to really modify our models to look at stronger or heavier rain events. In a changing climate that's really important.